Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and clinical condition that disturbs the body’s ability to process blood glucose. According to the global diabetes community UK, almost 3.7 million people in Uk are living with diagnosed diabetes mellitus. If diabetes is not managed well, then the raised level of blood sugar can lead to severe health complications such as cardiac complications, and stroke. The diet may play a significant role in managing diabetes. It is essential to know how certain foods affect insulin and blood sugar levels. Different types of diabetes mellitus are managed according to their clinical signs and complications.
Types of Diabetes
The following are the two most common types of diabetes.
Diabetes Type 1
Diabetes Type 1 is associated with children, and it mostly affects children and known as juvenile diabetes. This condition is developed when insulin production is failed in the human body. Individuals suffering from this condition are known as insulin dependants because they rely on insulin for their survival.
This type of diabetes, which accounts for just 5–10 per cent of people with diabetes, formerly surrounded by the conditions adult-onset diabetes, type 1 diabetes, or juvenile-onset diabetes, effects in cellular-mediated autoimmune destruction of this β-cells of their pancreas. Some of this immune destruction of this β-cell contain islet cell autoantibodies, autoantibodies to insulin, autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), and autoantibodies into the tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 along with IA-2β.
There no proper cause of diabetes type 1. However, it is quite clear that those who are suffering from diabetes type 1 have a weak immune system by the various bacterial and viral infections. Additionally, family history and genetic factors have also a significant role. Obesity is also a risk factor which may contribute to this condition.
- Increased hunger
- Increased thirst
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
Diabetes Type 2
Diabetes type 2 is a long term metabolic disorder; in this condition, insulin production is not affected. This condition can lead to severe health complications if uncontrolled. Possible health complications are digestive problems, renal functioning.
This type 2 diabetes, affects almost 90–95 per cent of people. In type II diabetes, obesity encompasses people that have insulin resistance and have insulin deficiency and frequently throughout their life; these folks do not need insulin therapy to endure. There are likely many distinct causes of this kind of diabetes. Though the specific etiologies are not understood, gastrointestinal destruction of β-cells does not happen.
- Family history of diabetes
- Insulin resistance
- Genetic factors
- Bad eating choices
- Lack of physical activity
- Dryness of mouth
- Increased hunger
- Feeling too much thirst
- Weight loss (Unexplained)
- Blurry vision
- Consciousness (rare)
- Gestational diabetes
It is a particular type of diabetes that has associated with pregnant females. This type occurs in women during pregnancy once the body becomes sensitive to insulin. Gestational diabetes does not occur in most women and usually disappear after giving birth.
The definition applies irrespective of whether only diet modification can be used for therapy. GDM complicates 4 per cent of pregnancies in the U.S., leading to ∼135,000 cases yearly. The incidence may vary from 1 to 14% of pregnancies, based upon the population examined. GDM represents almost 90 per cent of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.
The glycated haemoglobin test is that type of test that does not need fasting suggests your normal blood glucose range for few months (2-3). This test evaluates the proportion of blood glucose linked to haemoglobin, the red pigment carrying oxygen.
The elevated blood glucose level means the higher haemoglobin you will have with glucose connected. An A1C amount of 6.5 per cent or more on two individual tests suggests you have cardiovascular disease. The normal value of A1C is between 5.7 and 6.4 % this value suggests prediabetes.
Blood Sugar Random
A blood sample to be collected in a random moment. Irrespective of your last meal is eaten. The normal range of random blood glucose range is 200 mg per deciliter (mg/dL). In the case of the high level of diabetes, the random blood glucose value is 11.1 millimoles per litre (mmol/L).
Blood Sugar Fasting
A blood test will be obtained following 8-12 hours fast. Blood sugar fasting level must be below 100 mg/dL. The Blood sugar fasting range varies from 100 to 125 mg/dL. The borderline is 126 mg/dL anything from this range indicates diabetes.
Glucose fasting test also requires overnight fasting. The blood sample is obtained to evaluate blood glucose. Once the fasting blood glucose level is evaluated. You are allowed to drink a carbonated drink, and blood glucose levels are analysed periodically for a few hours.
Blood glucose lower than 140 mg/dL is considered normal. Any finding over 200 mg/dL followed by two hours test suggests diabetic. The range between 140 and 199 mg/dL indicates prediabetes.
Some oral drugs are used to treat diabetes type 1 and diabetes 2. Many oral medication options are also available depending upon the condition of the diabetic patient. If the condition is severe, then insulin is recommended for better blood sugar management.
This process involves bariatric surgery. This process is not for everyone due to its possible risk factors and complications. This process is suitable for those people who are obese, and their BMI index is higher than 35.
In some men and women that have type 1 diabetes, even a liver transplant might be an alternative. Islet transplants have been analysed too. Using a successful pancreas transplant, then you’d no longer require insulin treatment. You will need a life of immune-suppressing medication to prevent organ rejection. These medications can have severe side effects.
Factors Affecting Blood Sugar
Your blood glucose level can grow for a lot of reasons, such as eating too far, being ill or not carrying sufficient glucose-lowering medicine. Assess your blood glucose level as directed by your doctor, also see for symptoms and signs of elevated blood glucose.
If your blood glucose drops below your target range, it is called low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). If you are taking medicine which reduces your blood glucose, such as insulin, your blood glucose level can fall for a lot of reasons, such as skipping a meal and getting more physical activity compared to usual.
If your cells are starved for the expenditure of energy, your body will start to burn body fat. It creates toxic acids called ketones. Watch for lack of appetite, fatigue, nausea, fever, abdominal discomfort along with sweet, shortness of breath.
Treatment and advice
Based on which kind of diabetes you have, different variables depends upon blood glucose, the insulin level and medications may play a part in your therapy. Eating Nutritious food, and maintaining an ideal weight and engaging in routine activity are also essential factors in treating diabetes.
Blood Sugar Management
Blood glucose testing is also a significant component of diabetes treatment. Figure out when to check your blood glucose degree, the way to utilise a testing meter and much more. In case you have diabetes, then self-testing your blood glucose (blood sugar ) may be an important instrument in handling your treatment program and preventing diabetes issues. Maintaining normal blood glucose levels is an essential part of avoiding long-term health difficulties, managing your weight and simply feeling fabulous. In comparison with recurrent daily blood glucose tests. A high level of A1C may indicate the demand to revise your oral drugs, insulin program or meal program.
Many individuals who have type 2 diabetes also need insulin treatment. There is a range of variations of their thyroid gland, and clinical trials have had encouraging results. Various kinds of insulin can be found, such as rapid-acting insulin and everyday choices. Based on what you need, your physician can prescribe a combination of insulin forms to utilise during the night and day. Insulin cannot be adequately taken to reduce blood glucose because gut enzymes interfere with insulin activity.
Long Term Effects
Several pathogenic processes take part in the progression of diabetes. These vary from an autoimmune disease of this β-cells of the pancreas using consequent insulin lack to abnormalities, which cause resistance to insulin activity. The cornerstone of these abnormalities in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism is a deficient activity of insulin target cells.
Long-term effects include loss of eyesight; nephropathy resulting in renal failure; peripheral neuropathy having the threat of foot ulcers, amputations, and Charcot’s joints; along with adrenal disorder leading to gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular disorders and sexual dysfunction. Patients who have diabetes have an elevated incidence of coronary artery disease, peripheral cardiovascular disease, an autoimmune disorder. Hypertension and abnormalities of lipoprotein metabolism are most usually reported in people with diabetes.
If you would like more information and advice on diabetes and how to deal with it, speak to one of our pharmacists today.